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As will be the case with all of the exercises I will start with an \
explanation of the exercise. Then I will present a hint to help you solve it \
yourself. Then I will present the solution in detail.\
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This exercise is designed to make you think, more than it is designed to test \
you. It makes you think like a physicist. The first instruction is to think \
about what a closed system is. Reread the description in the previous \
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The first task in the exercise is to state the assumptions that need to be \
made in order to consider something a closed system. This requires you to \
think about what it takes to meet the definition of a closed system. This is \
important because physicists need to be able to understand, use, and operate \
within the constraints of a definition.\
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The second task is to explain what an open system is. This is another example \
of using a definition, the trick here is that you have to invent that \
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Closure can be thought of as a boundary. You could even think of it in terms \
of mathematical closure\[LongDash]if you do something to a member of a set, \
closure requires that it remain a member of the same set. Thus adding to \
natural numbers results in a natural number, the set of natural numbers is \
closed under addition. Thus, a closed set includes its boundary. Similarly an \
open set is one that does not include its boundary.\
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The assumptions required to establish a closed system are either\
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The system you are studying is the entire universe and is in the realm of \
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The system has no connections to anything other than what you are studying. \
In reality this is never achievable. However we can decide that connections \
outside the system are not important to our understanding. We will continue \
in this way for a long time and then find a previously hidden connection that \
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We can say that the system is approximately closed and then proceed as if it \
were closed until we find some reason for it not to be closed. Should this \
happen we may need to redefine the system so that it can be part of a larger \
closed system.\
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An open system can be said to be one that is not closed. In other words there \
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